Studying the plurality of Capitalism types in political economies


Capitalism is not singular but plural because there are many different types in comparative (European) societies. For this reason, Hall and Soskice (2001) explained that the concept is useful for understanding different functionalities and mechanisms of capitalistic countries’ political economies. Hence, the different types of capitalism in country`s political economy approaches are suitable concepts to study and understand (young people’s) school-to-employment transition process. However, the core actors are firms with emphasis on capitalist economies to adjust economic shock, competitiveness, and inflation (Hall and Soskice 2001). During this process, firms, individuals, employers and other actors play an important role in adjusting changes, competing globally, and sustaining countries’ performances (Hall and Soskice 2001)

In the study of Ebbinghaus and Manow (2001), the authors explained that in the core of country’s political economy, the differences in approaches of capitalism show that coordinated market economies work differently from liberal market economies. As a matter of fact, the proponents of the numerous types of capitalist approach are to investigate the cross-national variation and linkage in their respective fields of the social production system (ibid). In this paper, the social welfare production system on the labour market and the education system are taken into consideration. In addition, the different capitalism perspectives involve an aggregate parameter of the national political economies (Rhodes et al. (2007). Nevertheless, it also shows a micro-foundation view of cross-national capitalistic organisation and adjustment. Hence, at the centre of the model complementarities of institutions and coordination of systems are very important (Rhodes et al 2007; Kang, 2006). In this case, institutional subsystems that control capital and labour form a capitalist regime that mutually reinforce each other (Rhodes et al 2007; Kang 2006). Similarly, Kang (2006) emphases that the plural types of capitalism contain a solid coordinating and cooperative subsystem that guarantees firm`s competitive performances. Correspondingly, several authors like Hall and Soskice (2001) and Kang (2006), show the basic principles as the result of institutional governance where firms are remitted with comparative advantages according to their activities. These advantages deliberately increase the competitiveness of the system, generate, and enable adjustment paths to adjust economic pressures and societal change (Kang, 2006; Rhodes et al). In this case, the variety of capitalism show firms competitive linkage and the advantage of institutions during competition of national economies. (Rhodes et al (2007:5). However, the latter is an important aspect to the complementarities that exist between the institutions such as industrial relations, training system liaisons, corporate governances and intercompany relations (ibid). Hence, these features determined the core relationship of the political economy and it`s interplays/interconnections to geared (young people) school to employment transition process.

Despite that, Kang (2006) emphases that at the centre of the different types of capitalism, there are two distinctive capitalist models distinguished by a coordinated or uncoordinated market economy. With this in mind, specific variations still exist between the coordinated market economies which distinguished the governance of the transition process (Ebbinghaus and Manow, 2001). Also, these distinctions represent an ideal-typical model of economic governance that shows the peculiarity of different countries capitalism regimes with different institutional governance throughout the existing sub-systems (Ebbinghaus and Manow, 2001). However, if a distinct national models competing in a global economy remains dominant, a solid institutional cooperation and coordination remains the most suitable approach to regulate and effectively steer the transition process (ibid). As a result, several case studies across countries national economies show the differences and distinction of coordinated market economies and liberal market economies (Soskice, 1991; 1999). Thus, the subsystem diversifications are the modalities that geared young people transition path.
Likewise, Blossfeld et al. (2005) explained that coordinated market economies are characterised by strong commitments, corporation, and intensive collective ties among the prevailing actors. These attributes and commitments are manifested in the interrelation and corporate governance of the institutions, firms, and social system of production such as the labour market system and education regimes. Hence, (young) people`s transition path is systematically coordinated. Equally, is the dependency of inter-firms relationship to produce competency for competitiveness. In effect, the core competency is to incorporate skills and ability that are challenging and huge task for disadvantaged (young) people. Henceforth, the transition path is exposed to social risk and uncertainties. As a matter of fact, the political economies of Coordinated Market Economy coordinate the transition routes through extensive relationships and strong network that is monitored with the exchange of information (Klimplova 2007).

Contrary, uncoordinated market economy is composed of competitiveness and competition among actors (Kang, 2006; Hall and Soskice, 2001; Rhodes et al. 2007). Similarly, in response to such a market, actors react with regards to their want to demand, supply of goods or services that are often based on neo-classical economics (Halls and Soskice, 2001). As a result, the different types of capitalist approach show that different institutional governance and complementarities regulate and connect different types of companies’ rational attitude and models of investment (Kang, 2006). Also, this takes place in the investments of skills and the interplays of vital actors (Ebbinghaus and Manow, 2001). Therefore, due to rational behaviour, industrial workers often gain a specific skill that is valuable in the long run (ibid). Contrarily, when it is not the case employees can find employment with another company on same wages. However, strong unemployment protection via labour market law and collective agreements in coordinated market economies may convince employees to stay employed even in difficult times.

Nevertheless, the proponents of the liberal market economies, state that its labour market is viable to profit making capital that pave way for firms to radically innovate new products (Kang, 2006). In addition, Kang (2006) argues that the motives of this economic type composed of “switchable assets” that is valuable and can be converted for manifold goals and objectives. In this case, firms rely heavily on the market relation of employees and employers to decide the labour force (Hall and Soskice 2001). That is to say, they rely on a competitive market and global economic perspective for wage regulation and economy adjustment (Hall and Soskice 2001). Thus, they have a highly fluid labour market structure that enables a relative easy perspective to dismiss workers (ibid). These strategies encourage people to invest in general skills that are transferable across plants and not company-specific skills (ibid.). Furthermore, the education and training governance are typically complementary with the immensely irregular labour market system. In addition, vocational education is an entity of formal education institution that focuses on general education because firms are reluctant to invest in apprenticeship trainings (Hall and Soskice 2001). For this reason, the emphasis is laid on “certificate” in general skill and not specialized competencies (ibid). General education is considered to be high and low cost of supplementary training exist that enable firms to embark on an approach of in-house training (ibid). As a result of that, further training is insured to the employee’s expectation that lead to a general skills labour force suitable for growth in the service sector(ibid). Couple with that the inter-firm skills are influenced by market relation and formal contracts that plays fewer roles in technological transfer (ibid). Apparently, there are different models of institutional complementarities existing on the sub-spheres of this market regime (ibid). Thereupon, companies that cut down costs are complementary to financial market agreement within the flexibility to render profitability (ibid). On the other hand, educational arrangements that prefer general skills are complementary to highly irregular labour market (ibid).

Contrarily, in Coordinated Market Economies there are strong intercompany ties, long run employment measures, and strong behavioural rules (Kang, 2006: 5). Therefore, the logic of the coordinated market economies rotates on specific skills or assets that depend on active inter corporation among actors (Kang, 2006; Hall and Soskice 2001a; 2001b). Firms resolve problems with inter-company strategic interaction that geared (young) people`s school-to-work transition process (Hall and Soskice 2001). In addition, the process depends on supportive institutions that function as actors in the transition process (ibid). Hence, in this economy governance the financial system is coordinated that offer firm with financial access known as patient capital to enable company keep a skilled workforce during economic downturn and lucrative project investment (ibid). Moreover, there are high network systems that link the managers and technical staff to enable information flows and to check the progress of business affiliations (ibid). Also, they have a highly regulated labour force and strong industrial relationship that shaped the transition process (Gould et al. 2015). Similarly, Halls and Soskice (2011) claim that the labour market of this economy governance markedly relies on high industry and specific skills that depend on education and training governance that offer such workers. With this in mind, the coordination of strategic interaction among the actors pose a significant problem as employees need job’s assurance after apprenticeship, and firms investing in training need compensation with skills employees (ibid). For this reason, there are strong employers’ associations and trade unions that subsidised and monitored the training system, and companies that nurture an “inter-company relations” to support a number of institutions (ibid). Moreover, there are effective vocational training schemes in support of industrial-relations system to give high level of industry-specific skills.

Eddy Bruno is Political Economist, Sociologist, and Labour Market Policy Researcher

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Global/African Philanthropy and Policy Research Conference 2017

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Global African yearly’s PHILANTHROPY and POLICY RESEARCH CONFERENCE with its Value-added Workshops / Trainings for societal development process. There are also the presentation of evidence-based and solution-driven research papers/projects, research magazine publication, exhibition, and an unconditional means of networking/synergy possibilities.

3rd Edition in #EUROPE

29 – 30 April 2017 | Linz / Austria





We build our collective future together “”

Contact for Participation and Submission of Research Papers/Projects:
Bruno Eddy
Organizer / Project Leadership

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Global/African Philanthropy & Policy Research Magazine

Publisher & Chief Editor: Eddy Bruno

Global African Philanthropy and Policy Research Magazine is created to publish philanthropy and policy research about (Sub-saharan) African countries. The aim of the magazine is to assist researchers, students, Graduates , Postgraduates , education institutions, policy makers, the third sector and all other stakeholders dealing with Global African’s Philanthropy and Policy studies to have access to database, findings , and evident about African. In addition, the themes of articles and studies are mostly about the social welfare production regimes/governances and systems such as the education system, healthcare, childcare,labour market and employment system, as well as other social policy and advocacy. It’s also a platform for networking, exchange of ideas, guidance, assistance, counselling, coaching, and support to advocates, NGOs, NPOs, Foundations etc.


Magazine Front page

Chief Editor/Publisher
Eddy Bruno

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How to draft a Professional Summary for Your CV

Eddy Bruno – (Active) Labour Market Policy Researcher and Job Placement Expert

In today’s competitive job market, employers relay on well-written CVs to screen potential candidates. In many instances, employers look through job search web sites to find professionals with skills, education and experience that fit their needs. These employment search websites, along with many companies’ own online applications, require candidates to upload their CV in order to express interest in a specific opportunity.
However, without an opportunity to send a personal email, or a cover letter, you have to make sure that your CV expresses your personality in addition to listing your professional, educational experiences, and achievements. To do so, you can include a professional profile or summary at the beginning of your CV that allows you to market yourself through a narrative. This section allows your potential employers to learn something unique about you and your career, as well as get a good feel of your communication skills.

To write an effective summary, you should first understand what information should not be communicated in your CV. While a summary provides an insight into what is unique and competitive about you, it is not a place for you to indicate any personal information that does not relate to your career. Information such as ethnicity, marital status, sexual orientation, religious beliefs and affiliations, etc. should be left out of your CV. While descriptive of who you are, this information is not relevant to your potential employer in order to previous screen your qualifications for their opportunity. Additionally, the summary should not contain your previous professional experience, unless you can clearly demonstrate how such background can be of value in your future career development. Beware of generic statements, such as “I am well organized and detail oriented.” Employers want to hear your unique voice and get a sense of your communication skills while reading the summary portion of your CV. Using generalizations about your abilities will make the employers believe that you are either a poor communicator or are using such statements to fill up space on your CV. Your summary should be in form of a short paragraph or bullet statements, containing only several sentences. There isn’t a sentence limit, but as a rule do not take up more than one quarter of the page. Your summary should begin by a headline that summarizes your professional title and/or your professional statement. Emphasize your title by featuring the headline in bold and larger font, as it allows your potential employer to grasp who you are quickly. For example: Financial Planning Professional Achieved Double-Digit Return for All Clients through Well-Balanced Financial Portfolios. It is important that this title is well crafted, as it is the first impression your potential employer will have of you. There are three things a well-written summary should address: Your experiences and skills as they relate to your idea job. What you can bring to the organization, the open position that no other candidate can, and your professional goals. Even though your CV summary is written by you, it should be composed in third person, in present tense. Think of it as a summary of what one of your best colleagues would say about your professional achievements. Reinforce your title, and sell only the experiences and skills that meet your career objective. If you have multiple career objectives, such as you wish to get a position in either marketing or public relations, develop separate CV summaries for each of the objectives. A summary can also contain a brief bullet section highlighting only a few vital competitive skills that you bring to the table. An example of an effective summary would be as follows: Successful financial planning professional with over 15 years of personal and retirement planning experience. Leader in development and professional growth of four other financial planners in the firm through effective and motivating mentoring strategies. Key competencies include: Personalized portfolio development financial forecasting Retirement portfolio management Development on-going professional growth strategies. Much like your overall CV, your summary should be well-written and error- free. Make sure to review your summary, and customize as necessary for the various opportunities of interest. An effective summary will help you “hook” your employer; it should sell you as a primary candidate for the job, leaving your employer with a great first impression of you.

When applying for jobs, it is important that you read through the job description thoroughly before submitting your application. A lot of what employers are actually looking for in their potential associate is written right in the job description and requirements. In fact, you should review your CV against the requirements listed in order to make sure you have covered everything the employer is looking for.If you can address all the requirements by the information in your CV or in your cover letter, you will be on the right track for getting the job. However, there is a whole list of skills employers look for that are never spelled out in the job description. These skills are typically referred to as employee ability skills, which are skills beyond your technical knowledge and qualifications that make you a great professional in your field. Don’t panic, you already have employee ability skills, you just may not think of them as critical for getting a job. In this case, the employee ability skills have been grouped in eight categories:
(1)Communication skills (2)Teamwork skills (3)Problem-solving skills (4)Initiative and enterprise skills (5)Planning and organizing skills (6)Self-management (7)Learning skills (8)Technology skills
Now that you have read the categories, you are thinking to yourself, yes, I have those skills. But did you ever think to list them on the CV? Most people focus on their professional achievements and responsibilities, and they often skip these skills in favour of those that are job specific. However, more and more employers look for these skills in CVs. Therefore, your potential employer wants to know that you are a team player, that you communicate well, and will show initiative when needed. While you may think this is implied by your interest in the available position, employers like to see these skills called out on your CV or cover letter. The best way to demonstrate these skills is through your experience and under your qualifications. Point out the initiatives you have participated in that required you to work in a team, under a deadline, or as a self-starter. Demonstrate your loyalty through pointing out your accomplishments at an organization and how they benefited your team as a whole (not just you). You can showcase the employee ability skills in your cover letter by openly showing your enthusiasm for the available position, stating your commitment to your career objective, indicating your motivation and your integrity, and showing that you are above all unselfish and credible. These skills are just as critical to your ability to do a great job as your professional experience and education – employers are looking for someone who will be a great fit on their team and in their organization, someone who works well under pressure but also has a sense of humour and has a balance between their personal and professional life.
Review your existing CV. Does it contain any employee ability skills? If not, make revisions to incorporate those employee ability skills you feel you excel in. If you are unsure, ask your friends or family for an objective opinion, so that you can get a better idea of how people around you see you as a person as well as a professional. Keep these attributes in mind as you compose your CV and your cover letter, and especially as you are taking part in interviews. These skills can make a difference between knowing how to do a job and being qualified to exceed goals and grow in your career.

Job hunting can be one of the most exhilarating and yet one of the most agonizing experiences in your life. While you look forward to the new chapter in your professional life, finding a way to stand out from other candidates, who are at least equally qualified for the position you want, is a difficult task.
Your CV is the first contact your potential employer has with you. A well formatted and a well-written CV can make a difference between getting the interview and getting the job, and being passed over. Most employers receive a stack of CVs of qualified candidates and scan them quickly before they decide whether or not they want to read further. You only have a few seconds to make a lasting impression. Don’t panic. Instead, focus on the design of your CV as it is the first thing your employer, whether on paper or in electronic form.
The most commonly made mistake in CV design include using templates that are already available in Microsoft Word. While these templates provide a quick, easy to follow tools to create your CV, they are outdated, and they will make your CV appear generic and uninviting. Additionally, these templates, while well formatted in Microsoft Word, will not translate well when emailed or uploaded to job search engine web sites.
Second most commonly made mistake in CV design is inclusion of graphics on the page. Your picture and/or any other graphics are not appropriate for a CV. Including anything outside of plain text will make you stand out in a way that makes the employer think you are not taking yourself seriously as a professional, and this is certainly not the first impression you want to make. You can find samples of CVs on the Internet; search for CVs by your industry to find the templates that make most sense for the job you are seeking.
Than work on a blank page to replicate the look and feel of the CV you like. The following are basic formatting rules for your CV: Limit the length of the CV to two pages. The page should have one-inch margins, top and bottom, right and left. Use left justification only – as a rule, do not centre the content of your CV. The font and font size should be consistent. The bullet points should be basic – use circles or squares, but never any symbols that may not translate well when you email your CV to your potential employer. Headlines can be in all caps; the remaining text should not have special formatting. Do not underline any of the information in your CV. In the world of Internet driven job applications, underlining in a document implies a web link. The font size for headlines should not exceed 14 points; the remainder of the text in the CV should not exceed 12 points. Use the Tab key instead of the Space bar to create spaces between the texts in your CV. As a last formatting check point, ask your friends or your family for help in reviewing your CV. Send the CV file via email to a few of your friends – ask them to review the CV and make sure nothing seems out of place. Print out the CV on paper and review to make sure that margins are accurately set, and that the content doesn’t appear crowded on the page. Keep in mind – when it comes to your CV, sleek simple appearance, and great writing, will get you the job you are seeking.

You’ve heard it over and over again – a well-written CV is a winning CV. What does that mean? How can you determine whether your CV is written in a tone and style that employers will respond to? Synthesizing your educational achievements, years of your professional experience, and numerous qualifications you have acquired over the years into one to two pages is not easy to accomplish. Every phrase or statement you write has to convince your potential employer that you are the best candidate for the job. To do so, you will need to use action or power word. Action words, or power words, are keywords (verbs) that add strength and positive implication to your job responsibilities or qualifications. When you submit your CV to your potential employer, there are two scenarios that will occur. One, your application will be ran through a computer software program, which searches your CV for key terms as indicated by the employer. If your CV contains those key words, your CV will be pulled aside for further review.
Two, a hiring manager, or most often a human resources associate, will receive a stack or CVs and scan through them quickly to pick out those that stand out the most, again based on certain key words. It should now be clear why these action words are critical to your success in job hunting. When listing your employment history, each job’s responsibilities should be listed in bullet point form, with each statement starting with an action word. Using power verbs or phrases will indicate to your employer that you are driven by action and results and that you can effectively articulate your professional experience (thus, showcasing your communication skills). Here is a small sample of action words: Created Developed and Implemented Managed Delivered Designed Facilitated Negotiated Coordinated Budgeted Acted Communicated Consulted, etc. This is a very short sampling of action words. Many resources on the Internet contain extensive listings of action words or phrases. Do some research and use only those terms that are relevant to your field of experience.
Your best bet would be to locate samples of CVs by professionals in your industry. Review those CVs for ideas on how to list your responsibilities. Important note: do not copy exact statements from another person’s CV; while you can do your research, you will want to make your CV personalized to your professional experience. Don’t fall into the trap of using the same action word over and over. If you have in fact managed multiple projects, you may want to be a bit more specific about your role in each. For example, maybe you were the communication liaison in one project, while you were the project manager for another task. Begin the first bullet point with “communicated,” and the second bullet point with “managed.”
However, be aware of the words that you are using and consider their value in your CV. Do not go overboard with using varying terms, especially those that may change your role or your responsibilities. Additionally, you can find key action words in job descriptions. Review your CV against a job description and make sure that all required qualifications are addressed in your statements. This will also help you identify action words that the employer uses, which you can in turn use to customize your CV or cover letter to that specific job. Always make sure that you are consistent in the way you list all of your responsibilities and qualifications, and make sure that your statements exude positive attitude and focus on actions and results. By doing so, you are guaranteed to create a winning CV that will get you noticed.

If you have never written a CV, the blank page you are facing can be very intimidating. While you can describe your job responsibilities to your friends, listing them out in a CV and showcasing how your experience to date meets your career objectives is a very difficult task. To get started, you must first consider what type of a job you are seeking. Much like your career objective or summery should reflect your professional goals, your current and past experiences must showcase that you are the best candidate for the job you are applying for. In listing your current and past professional experiences, try to focus on those responsibilities that indicate you are qualified to take the next step in your career. Due to the fact that more and more companies as well as job search sites use scanning software to pick out candidates, it is very important that you use key words, including active verbs, to describe your skills. Instead of beginning your job descriptions with “Responsible for” try to use active verbs such as: Managed Developed Created Communicated Interfaced Achieved, etc. These key words get straight to the point of describing your responsibilities, which is exactly what the employers are looking for. Chose these words carefully – don’t say that you “managed a project”, implying you were responsible for the whole task from start to finish if you were only responsibly for communicating the project to other associates. Instead state that you “Developed and executed the communication strategy for associates,” describing your role more accurately and emphasizing your strengths.
Typically, the first job listed on your CV is the one you currently hold. In this case, make sure that your responsibilities are stated in present tense, as you are still responsible for them. For example, say “Manage accounting activities” instead of “Managed accounting activities.” This will indicate to your potential employer what your day-to-day activities are like and how they complement responsibilities of the job you are submitting your CV for. All previous jobs should be listed using past tense, and should start with active verbs such as managed, developed, accomplished, etc. Additionally, make sure that responsibilities you are listing are relevant for to your career objective. List only those responsibilities which help you put your best foot forward. For example, if you are looking for a job that requires managing a team of people, focus on your development and participation in group projects instead of focusing on solitary activities such as office organization. In terms of formatting, make sure that your responsibilities are listed in bullet points. This formatting is preferred to paragraphs on a CV because it is easier to review quickly. Employers simply scan the CVs and look for key words – if the CV looks overwhelming, with a lot of copy and poor formatting, they will likely discard it. Thus, it is very important that your CV is formatted with enough white space and doesn’t contain any errors.

For Entry Level Graduating from college is one of the proudest moments you can experience. Receiving your diploma validates all the hard work you put into your education, the all nights you pulled before exams. Your graduation signifies your accomplishments as a student, and opens the door into the world of career choices, job searches, and 40-hour workweeks.
All of a sudden, it hits you – how will you get a job that requires experience if you have none? As a recent college graduate, you are entering the workforce at entry-level jobs. Your potential employers have very reasonable expectations. They expect you to have graduated from college and that your major is in line with the job you are applying for. They anticipate that you have some experience, a summer job or an internship, but they are not requiring years of professional experience. They would like to see some references – from your professors or previous supervisors – so that they can get a better idea of your personality and work ethic. Sound reasonable so far? The best way to show your potential employer that you are a perfect candidate for the job is to create a functional CV. Functional CVs focus on your qualifications, not your career time line. This style of the CV highlights what skills you have, rather than where and when you acquired or utilize them. In other words, instead of listing your experiences by your job titles, your CV will contained sections titled by your skills such as verbal and written communication, customer satisfaction, project management, etc. This CV style is highly recommended for and most often used by college students seeking internships or their first jobs out of college. Begin your CV by stating your career objective. Make sure that your career goals are personal. Your objective should be specific to the position you want, and should indicate to your employer how you intend to utilize your education and how this position will help you develop your experience. Your education should be listed next. List the school you attend and its location, your graduation year, and your major. It can be helpful to include your GPA, specific courses you have taken, or any honours you have received while in school. Your professional skills should come next.
This section will include sub-headings as they relate to specific qualifications you want to promote, such as communications, customer relations, managements, etc. Here, you can utilize any experience you have that relates to the sub-sections, including your part time jobs, internships, volunteer positions, community service work, or school- related activities. Only include a work experience/work history section if you have held part time jobs while in school or have had internships you’d like your employer to know about. This list should only include dates, titles, companies, and locations without listing any of your responsibilities, since you are covering them in the previous section. If you belonged to any clubs in school, include a section for activities and list only those that support your career objective. For example, if you were an editor of your school paper, and you are trying to get a job at a publishing company, make sure that you include this experience in your CV.
Your last section should list references. As a new graduate, it is to your benefit to include references on your CV, and give your employer everything they need to consider you as a qualified candidate for the job. You have nothing to lose by providing this information ahead of being asked for it.

Before you start applying for jobs, take advantage of your school’s career centre and have one of the mentors there review your CV and help you perfect both the content and the format. With a well-written CV, you are prepared to take the professional world by storm.

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Global/African Philanthropy & Policy Research Conference 2017 – 3rd Edition


The Global African yearly’s PHILANTHROPY and POLICY RESEARCH CONFERENCE 2o17 with its value-added workshops / trainings for societal development process, is taking place between the 28th – 30th of April 2017 in Linz / Austria – Europe. In addition, there will also be varieties of presentations from different welfare, social, and public Research, publication of our philanthropy and policy research Magazine, building of Synergy, Exhibitions, and an unconditional redistributive Networking possibilities.

3rd Edition from the #28th – 30th April in Linz/ Austria – EUROPE

4th Edition in #SUB-#SAHARAN #AFRICA


Conference’s focus groups are:



Conference Facebook Blog:

We build our collective future together ”

Bruno Eddy
Organizer / Project Leadership

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Education governance as catalyst to stable job

Skills Formation and Training Workshop (Y-SkillsLab Workshop) with Eddy Bruno (Trainer) Facebook:

The acquisition of specific skills is considered as a prerequisite of young person’s entrance into the employment. In this case, it directly plays a pertinent role in the transition path. In other words, there is a large amount of evidence` that suggest formal qualifications are prerequisites to get a stable job for young people . This shows that access into the labour market is guaranteed through specific skills acquisition and educational qualification. To put it differently, lack of these labour market entrance prerequisites tends to lead to social exclusion. However, young people, especially those with migration backgrounds are often at risk of marginalisation. For this purpose, they often leave school path uncompleted with low educational attainment that does not suit the labour market expectation.

To end that, countries such as Austria and Finland manage the deficits with the Youth Guarantee Policy measure, clustered under education and training, employment services, and active labour market measures. Despite that, unsuccessful transitional result involves the decision of the young person’s educational path. Therefore, education and training are vital parts of young people’s school in employment transition process. As a result, most young people face many difficulties after finishing compulsory school with the age of 15, when they are systematically selected for further education. Also, at 15 years, most youngsters are experiencing puberty, seeking for self-identity, and self-decision-making perspectives. In most cases, they are faced with educational expectations which are full of capitalistic and bureaucratic structures. These aspects coupled with other factors disturb their schooling process, rendering them vulnerable to drop out and thus, insufficient qualification. Hence, this shows that disadvantaged young people are often entangled to couple of risky dilemmas that steer their decision-making process during the transition path.

Despite that, there are several distinctive features that link youth labour market system with the educational governance to geared young people`s school to employment transition process. In this view, staying longer in education, vocational training or re-training reduces the risk of unemployment. Also, the investment and guarantee of youth education indicate equal possibilities to participate in the labour market. Thus, the issue of education is a vital aspect of young people’s school to employment process. In light of that, specific skills are acquired that fulfil the prerequisite to labour market entrance. Contrarily, disadvantaged young people are often dropouts with inadequate qualification and skills. Also, their link between schooling and the labour market activities shows a disappointing result with an increasingly high rate of unemployment. This misfortune is typically compensated through measurable benefits of individual training and educational upgrading via active labour market measures. The early labour market programmes provide youths with possibilities to receive a job offer, training, and reintegration assistance into the labour market. Besides, they will have the means to access suitable education and increase their chances to enter the labour market.

In fact, early school intervention leads to exclusive performances in general and vocational education reforms in pre/post-secondary level. In this case, the Authors Stern and Wagner (1999) and Stern (1999) stated that the explanation is as a result of apprenticeship, change of curricula, work experiences, and corporation between school and companies. All of these aspects are blueprints of the Youth Guarantee measure to secure equality of opportunity in the labour market system. However, young people with inadequate specific skills usually face long-term unemployment. Equally, the latter leads to socio-economic stagnation, ill health, and the rise of diverse social risk factor that negatively affect youth’s transition path.
As has been noted, in order to manage, coordinate, and regulate young people’s school to employment transition process, countries embark on active labour market measures. Hence, this is to guarantee education and training with assistance, job search, and coaching. These measures show the result of the educational governance and the employment regime through purposive support and guidance to coordinate and regulate the path.

Eddy Bruno (2016): Education governance as catalyst to stable job . In: School-to-work transition process among (disadvantaged) young People.

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“Fractured Transition” patterns of Young People`s without securing a stable job

Young People during an Active Labour Market Policy Measure Workshop (YSkillsLab) upgrading their skills [Trainer Eddy Bruno]

According to Milmeister and Berg (2012:19), the transit patterns and process are a stimulating and complex process of a youth’s lifestyle which has become less linear and fragmented. Thus, a successful transition process is a challenging path in contemporary society, particularly by disadvantaged youths at risk. In this case, they face difficulties that lead to societal exclusion. As a result of that, couple of uncertainties prevail through this path, especially in the decision-making process that hampers the transition routes. However, it is obvious that young people are often in a development process, where they have to meet up with uncountable societal expectations. Frequently, it leads to a nonconformist decision-making approach of disadvantaged youths. Thereupon, they are equipped with insufficient specific skills from education, employment or training that endangers the school to employment transition process. Similarly, Blossfeld et al (2005) suggest that entering the labour market has become a highly de-standardized status passage involving much uncertainty. In fact, this shows that contemporary young people labour market entrance composes of diverse barriers and expectations. Most of the societal expectations are high, especially with the demand of specific labour market skills, certificates, and qualifications. In other words, (disadvantaged) young people have inadequate and insufficient skills that fracture the school to employment transition process. Nevertheless, the experiences vary among the younger population, especially with the disadvantaged youths who are most affected and other prevalent difficulties such as the first entry into employment.

To point out, Dorsett and Lucchino (2014) examined the transition process in the United Kingdom with the aim of understanding the phenomenon in post school-leaving age. They used the tools of ‘optimal matching’ to identify the pattern (ibid). Hence, the result suggests that every 9 out of 10 post-16 youngsters have a rapidly positive experience and the remaining young people show a variety of histories which might call for a policy attention (ibid). Furthermore, a clear and accessible knowledge of post-16 year olds are important to reduce fractured transitional risk and uncertainties (Dorsett and Lucchino, 2014 cited from Coles, 1995; Furlong and Cartmel, 2004).

These key social risks and fractured transitions (Dorsett and Lucchino, 2012) are instances that young people pursue while meeting up with societal expectation. Hence, responding to all these systems disadvantaged young people, often incomplete the path with unpredictable endings. They are confronted with overwhelming challenges and expectations. For this reason, the fractured transition process leads to exclusion and other social risks. To put it in another way, it is always a challenge for the 15 – 24 year old young people to simultaneously combine schooling and employer expectation, peer group pressure, and institutional rules with regulations. The consequences are devastating and might likely lead to a high rate of disengagement, unemployment, stigmatization, early school leaver, and dropouts. However, the schooling, training or re-training process is part of the fractured transition which frequently results to fragmented output.

Consequently, disadvantaged young people usually end up as early school leavers and dropouts with insufficient qualifications, inadequate specific skills, and certificates for entrance into the labour market. Furthermore, the schooling and training process directly shows the dependency path of the transition process. They are frequent victims of the system, the coordinated process, and its institutional governance that knocks out youth with insufficient skills. Hence, they face difficulties entering into a labour market, which requires high and specific skills, competence, and competitiveness.

Eddy Bruno (2016):“Fractured Transition” patterns without securing a stable Job. In: School-to-work transition process among (disadvantaged) young People.

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Eddy Bruno – Labour Market Researcher & Political Economist

Globalization is “meeting of processes that have led to growing international networking” (Alasuutari 2000). In recent years, it has increased with the rapid advances in information technology, the collapse of the Eastern bloc, and the associated opening up of new markets, as well as the rise of Asian countries. Moreover, since the 1980s, the process also shows the interaction of the following four macrostructures: (A) the increasing internalisation of markets and the resulting growing competition between countries with very different wage and productivity levels and different social standards; (B) the intensification of competition between the social states and the resulting consequences; (C) the rapid worldwide networking of people, stakeholders, and States; and (D) the rapid rise in the significance of globally linked markets and the associated increasing interdependence and volatility of local markets. However, on the one hand, productivity gains and improvements in the general standard of living have led to a growing general uncertainty. Equally, the following changes are also to be noted: (I.) It is increasingly difficult for all actors to make rational decisions, in particular of long-term life`s commitments; (Ii) long-term decisions have become increasingly difficult, resulting in a socio-economic shift in favor of short-term planning; and (Iii) there has been a shift in the power constellations on the labor market, which has impacted asymmetrical relations (i.e. “temporary work or temporary contracts”) on the labor market (Blossfled et al. 2007) This has spilled out disappointments, loss of trust, reduction in family, and welfare function, which are attributable to four central changes in the personal life histories and resulting social patterns of inequality in different societies in the world.

Therefore, the four central transitions in life and work are:
A) Young people and Young adults – the losers of Globalization:
They are confronted with increasing rise of uncertainty in the labor market, which manifests itself in precarious and atypical forms of employment (e.g., part-time work, precarious forms of self-employment, temporary employment, and cohort comparison of lower incomes etc.). There is also a lack of professional experience and networks, which makes entry into the “internal” labor market particularly difficult. The effects vary according to welfare and employment regimes with the experience “more serious in the US than “flexible forms of employment in the European insider-outsider markets.” In addition, education has become more and more important, as low-skilled entry-level workers are particularly punished and disadvantaged within the system. In addition, because of life’s uncertainties, young adults are mainly without children, which is an economic and socially rational structural development.
B) Middle-income men – the winners of Globalization
On one hand, the employment conditions of well-qualified male workers are stable and are protected against flexibilisation by employers. On the other hand, low-skilled and less established workers such as education graduates or young adults are punished. There are also country-specific differences in labor market, welfare arrangements, and determinants such as individual resources – educational qualifications and professional human capital.
C) Women in the middle of their lives are marginalized.
However, despite labour market integration, women are primarily engaged in a precarious way and in all modern societies, unpaid family and care activities are still largely taken over by women. They are disproportionately flexible in working forms (such as, precarious part-time jobs, unsafe and low-paid employment, jobs with lower career prospects, high risk of a decline or unemployment) to meet the parallel family obligations. Likewise, development patterns vary in different regimes and the individual resources (educational capital) centrally determine the life and work process.
D) Employees in the early retirement age
However, due to the new flexibility requirements, older workers have several comparative competitive disadvantages compared to younger labor market competitors. They are also perceived as “less flexible, not adequately qualified and cost-intensive” by firms (ibid). Moreover, they are strategically motivated by attractive financial incentives to early exit – “early retirement strategy” [e.g. In the Central and South European countries] or through the following strategies. On the one hand by the market mechanism [e.g. In the liberal states] or through state mechanisms for the enhancement of adaptability – an active labor market policy, state support for lifelong learning and professional qualification [e.g. Social Democratic States of Scandinavia].

Despite that, the is a development of Social Patterns of Inequality in the Globalization Process
I. Regimes with inflexible employment systems: (e.g., German, Italy, Spain)
The speech here is from a regime that leads to an intensification of inequality between insiders / outsiders and which has led society into a highly secure and well-earning group on the one hand and a marginalized group of people on the other. This affects mainly job-seekers, women, as well as the unemployed and unqualified whose problems have intensified on the labor market. In southern European regimes, the inequality is most pronounced as labor market structures are even more rigid and the welfare state is much more fragmented than in the conservative countries of central Europe. Hence, inflexible regimes have fostered the inequality between the generations by “older people (or former insiders), whose employment flexibility through high pensions is comparatively socially secured, and (…) young people who make their flexibilisation in the labor markets with comparatively little social security and relatively low risk compensation, as well as the financing and high social security of the “disrupted generations” (ibid).
II. Employment-demanding regimes
There is a great difference between the market-oriented liberal and the social-democratic countries. Liberal labor market and welfare state systems are relatively easy to meet through dismissals and wage adjustments (such as, in the US and the UK), which point to a high level of mobility as well as significant wage differences between groups with different qualifications. These inequalities are little cushioned by welfare state policies and benefits that have shifted the labor risk to individual resources with increasing labor market flexibility. In contrast, the social democratic countries (such as the Denmark) make it possible to increase employment flexibility with comparatively strong state support measures that help the reintegration of the unemployed. At the same time, the entrepreneurs have little scope for wage flexibility , which can be observed with a higher workload mobility and thus caused social inequalities between younger and older generations as well as within one generation.
III. Post-socialist regimes
The risk of unemployment as well as wage inequality has risen strongly in these countries after the fall of the socialist system, but the country-specific flexibility strategies are very different. In the same way, the social inequalities between workers have therefore strongly increased with insiders and outsiders problems

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Y-SkillLab Training to smooth School-to-Work Transition Process



The school-to-work transition process is a path full of uncertainties and difficulties. Most especially, young people and young adult between 15-19, 19-24, and 24-29 face lots of challenges with early career and first entry into the job market. In addition, the often have inefficient specific skills with precarious contracts and working poor (tendency of working, but not able with the current earnings to meet up with financial demands). Nevertheless, who are those suffering from this social risk? Of course the young people, especially those without the necessary social capital (networking, education attainment, relatives in top ranking position etc.).

In this case, social capital is an essential prerequisite that serves as an entrance card into the labour market system. However, in many countries, it`s limited because young people are often knocked out of the education system with insufficient skills and negatives remarks. This will equally reduce their social mobility and deprived them from basic needs.

In order to smooth young people school to work transition process, Y-skillLab project is designed to tailored solution-driven active labour market measure. It`s to assist and support young people with acquired specific employers’ skills (such as entrepreneurial skills, literally skills, language skills, media competence, etc.) which serves as a prerequisite to employment and entrepreneurship. Therefore, through this active labour market measure we have offered laptops to a community in Cameroon. It is to facilitate disadvantaged young people to have access to upgrade their skills and smooth the school to work transition process.


Eddy Bruno: HIBA Founder and Project Leader


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Top skills to get you a job and out of precarious Work

Photo Credit: Image
A Research by Eddy Bruno

In recent times, skills plays the role to shape inequalities, active participation, and inclusive redistribution. Moreover, employer`s expectation of specific skills can lead to labour market exclusion and perilous lifestyle as disadvantaged people (dropouts, Early school leavers, migrants, young people, etc) are possessing insufficient experience. This will definitely jeopardize their life-cycle and they shall face the challenge of precarious jobs (low-income jobs,unstable employment, lower wages, more dangerous working conditions. contract jobs etc.) and working poor.

According to recent research, precarious work defines the phenomena where Companies worldwide are shirking their legal obligations to workers by replacing permanent jobs with contract and temporary work. Therefore, precarious worker`s group is those who fill permanent job needs, but are denied permanent employee rights. Globally, these workers are subject to unstable employment, lower wages and more dangerous working conditions. They rarely receive social benefits and are often denied the right to join a union. Even when they have the right to unionize, workers are scared to organize if they know they are easily replaceable. In this case, women, minorities, and migrant workers are much more likely to fill these kinds of jobs. As a matter of fact, permanent employment across a some sectors has shifted to precarious jobs through outsourcing, use of employment agencies, and inappropriate classification of workers as “short-term” or “independent contractors (International Labour right forum 2017). Also, this had led to the flexibility of the labour market system with insider/outsider policy formation that often exclude disadvantage people from societal resource

Therefore, early labour market entrance and career have been increasingly difficult to the disadvantaged. Moreover, there are so many graduates now on the market as well as employer`s are looking for evidence of skills and work experience, which will make you stand out from the crowd. Start gathering them now or work on what you’ve got so you are ready to impress recruiters. Moreover, employers place much emphasis on finding candidates with the right skills and competencies for their organisations. Depending on the career sector and profession you choose to work in, there could be very specific skills, abilities and knowledge needed to do the job. However, complementing these are general competencies and behaviours that are essential for successful working. These are often overlooked by candidates, but they are the things recruitment professionals want to see evidence of. (Target Jobs 2017)

According to a report of the target job (2017),these are the following top ten skills graduate recruiters want:
1. Commercial awareness (or business acumen): This is about knowing how a firm works and what makes a company tick. Showing that you have an understanding of what the organisation wants to meet through its products and services, and how it competes in its marketplace
2. Communication: This covers verbal and written communication, and listening. It’s about being clear, concise and focused; being able to tailor your message for the audience and listening to the views of others.
3. Teamwork: You’ll need to prove that you’re a team player but also have the ability to manage and delegate to others and take on responsibility. It’s about building positive working relationships that help everyone to make goals and business aims.
4. Negotiation and Persuasion: This is about being able to put forward your way, but also being able to understand where the other person is coming from so that you can both get what you want or need and feel positive about it.
5. Problem solving: You need to display an ability to take a logical and analytical approach to solving problems and resolving issues. It’s also good to show that you can approach problems from different angles.
6. Leadership: You need to show potential to motivate teams and other colleagues that may work for them. It’s about assigning and delegating tasks well, setting deadlines and leading by good example.
7. Organisation: This is about showing that you can prioritize, work efficiently and productively, and manage your time well. It’s also good to be able to show employers how you decide what is important to focus on and get done, and how you go about meeting deadlines.
8. Perseverance: Employers want people to have a bit of get-up-and-go. Working life presents many challenges and you need to show employers that you’re the kind of person who will find a way through, even when the going gets tough… and stay cheerful-ish.
9. Ability to work under pressure: This is about keeping calm in a crisis and not becoming too overwhelmed or stressed.
10. Confidence: In the workplace you need to strike the balance of being confident in yourself, but not arrogant, but also have confidence in your colleagues and the plant you work for.

Therefore, with the above employer`s demanded skills, you can shape and smooth your school to work transition process and simplify your life, despite other factors that can still instigate social exclusion. Equally, the labour market and employment researcher, Eddy Esien, has designed a Y-SkillsLab ( active labour market policy measure/project, tailored to assist, support, and (re)trained people to upgrade and tap their potential skills.

To sum up, skills are prerequisite to enter the labour market and they also shape inequalities. Having a higher IQs isn`t a guarantee to smooth someone`s transition process, but in combination of a huge part of problem-solving skills, trust, team work, empathy, and the ability to have a healthy leadership, ethical value with a sense of humanity

Esien Eddy (2017): Y-SkillsLab.
International Labour Right Forum 2017. Precarious Work:
Target Job (2017): source

By Eddy Bruno:
Founder of HIBA, welfare, social and Public Policy Researcher, author of many “Active” labour Market Policy Research, and Political Economist. He equally has a long experience about the research and formation of skills with regard to inequalities. As a developmental expert, he has draft, execute, and implement varieties of social welfare projects for sustainability.

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