Category Archives: Labour market

How to draft a Professional Summary for Your CV

Eddy Bruno – (Active) Labour Market Policy Researcher and Job Placement Expert

In today’s competitive job market, employers relay on well-written CVs to screen potential candidates. In many instances, employers look through job search web sites to find professionals with skills, education and experience that fit their needs. These employment search websites, along with many companies’ own online applications, require candidates to upload their CV in order to express interest in a specific opportunity.
However, without an opportunity to send a personal email, or a cover letter, you have to make sure that your CV expresses your personality in addition to listing your professional, educational experiences, and achievements. To do so, you can include a professional profile or summary at the beginning of your CV that allows you to market yourself through a narrative. This section allows your potential employers to learn something unique about you and your career, as well as get a good feel of your communication skills.

To write an effective summary, you should first understand what information should not be communicated in your CV. While a summary provides an insight into what is unique and competitive about you, it is not a place for you to indicate any personal information that does not relate to your career. Information such as ethnicity, marital status, sexual orientation, religious beliefs and affiliations, etc. should be left out of your CV. While descriptive of who you are, this information is not relevant to your potential employer in order to previous screen your qualifications for their opportunity. Additionally, the summary should not contain your previous professional experience, unless you can clearly demonstrate how such background can be of value in your future career development. Beware of generic statements, such as “I am well organized and detail oriented.” Employers want to hear your unique voice and get a sense of your communication skills while reading the summary portion of your CV. Using generalizations about your abilities will make the employers believe that you are either a poor communicator or are using such statements to fill up space on your CV. Your summary should be in form of a short paragraph or bullet statements, containing only several sentences. There isn’t a sentence limit, but as a rule do not take up more than one quarter of the page. Your summary should begin by a headline that summarizes your professional title and/or your professional statement. Emphasize your title by featuring the headline in bold and larger font, as it allows your potential employer to grasp who you are quickly. For example: Financial Planning Professional Achieved Double-Digit Return for All Clients through Well-Balanced Financial Portfolios. It is important that this title is well crafted, as it is the first impression your potential employer will have of you. There are three things a well-written summary should address: Your experiences and skills as they relate to your idea job. What you can bring to the organization, the open position that no other candidate can, and your professional goals. Even though your CV summary is written by you, it should be composed in third person, in present tense. Think of it as a summary of what one of your best colleagues would say about your professional achievements. Reinforce your title, and sell only the experiences and skills that meet your career objective. If you have multiple career objectives, such as you wish to get a position in either marketing or public relations, develop separate CV summaries for each of the objectives. A summary can also contain a brief bullet section highlighting only a few vital competitive skills that you bring to the table. An example of an effective summary would be as follows: Successful financial planning professional with over 15 years of personal and retirement planning experience. Leader in development and professional growth of four other financial planners in the firm through effective and motivating mentoring strategies. Key competencies include: Personalized portfolio development financial forecasting Retirement portfolio management Development on-going professional growth strategies. Much like your overall CV, your summary should be well-written and error- free. Make sure to review your summary, and customize as necessary for the various opportunities of interest. An effective summary will help you “hook” your employer; it should sell you as a primary candidate for the job, leaving your employer with a great first impression of you.

When applying for jobs, it is important that you read through the job description thoroughly before submitting your application. A lot of what employers are actually looking for in their potential associate is written right in the job description and requirements. In fact, you should review your CV against the requirements listed in order to make sure you have covered everything the employer is looking for.If you can address all the requirements by the information in your CV or in your cover letter, you will be on the right track for getting the job. However, there is a whole list of skills employers look for that are never spelled out in the job description. These skills are typically referred to as employee ability skills, which are skills beyond your technical knowledge and qualifications that make you a great professional in your field. Don’t panic, you already have employee ability skills, you just may not think of them as critical for getting a job. In this case, the employee ability skills have been grouped in eight categories:
(1)Communication skills (2)Teamwork skills (3)Problem-solving skills (4)Initiative and enterprise skills (5)Planning and organizing skills (6)Self-management (7)Learning skills (8)Technology skills
Now that you have read the categories, you are thinking to yourself, yes, I have those skills. But did you ever think to list them on the CV? Most people focus on their professional achievements and responsibilities, and they often skip these skills in favour of those that are job specific. However, more and more employers look for these skills in CVs. Therefore, your potential employer wants to know that you are a team player, that you communicate well, and will show initiative when needed. While you may think this is implied by your interest in the available position, employers like to see these skills called out on your CV or cover letter. The best way to demonstrate these skills is through your experience and under your qualifications. Point out the initiatives you have participated in that required you to work in a team, under a deadline, or as a self-starter. Demonstrate your loyalty through pointing out your accomplishments at an organization and how they benefited your team as a whole (not just you). You can showcase the employee ability skills in your cover letter by openly showing your enthusiasm for the available position, stating your commitment to your career objective, indicating your motivation and your integrity, and showing that you are above all unselfish and credible. These skills are just as critical to your ability to do a great job as your professional experience and education – employers are looking for someone who will be a great fit on their team and in their organization, someone who works well under pressure but also has a sense of humour and has a balance between their personal and professional life.
Review your existing CV. Does it contain any employee ability skills? If not, make revisions to incorporate those employee ability skills you feel you excel in. If you are unsure, ask your friends or family for an objective opinion, so that you can get a better idea of how people around you see you as a person as well as a professional. Keep these attributes in mind as you compose your CV and your cover letter, and especially as you are taking part in interviews. These skills can make a difference between knowing how to do a job and being qualified to exceed goals and grow in your career.

Job hunting can be one of the most exhilarating and yet one of the most agonizing experiences in your life. While you look forward to the new chapter in your professional life, finding a way to stand out from other candidates, who are at least equally qualified for the position you want, is a difficult task.
Your CV is the first contact your potential employer has with you. A well formatted and a well-written CV can make a difference between getting the interview and getting the job, and being passed over. Most employers receive a stack of CVs of qualified candidates and scan them quickly before they decide whether or not they want to read further. You only have a few seconds to make a lasting impression. Don’t panic. Instead, focus on the design of your CV as it is the first thing your employer, whether on paper or in electronic form.
The most commonly made mistake in CV design include using templates that are already available in Microsoft Word. While these templates provide a quick, easy to follow tools to create your CV, they are outdated, and they will make your CV appear generic and uninviting. Additionally, these templates, while well formatted in Microsoft Word, will not translate well when emailed or uploaded to job search engine web sites.
Second most commonly made mistake in CV design is inclusion of graphics on the page. Your picture and/or any other graphics are not appropriate for a CV. Including anything outside of plain text will make you stand out in a way that makes the employer think you are not taking yourself seriously as a professional, and this is certainly not the first impression you want to make. You can find samples of CVs on the Internet; search for CVs by your industry to find the templates that make most sense for the job you are seeking.
Than work on a blank page to replicate the look and feel of the CV you like. The following are basic formatting rules for your CV: Limit the length of the CV to two pages. The page should have one-inch margins, top and bottom, right and left. Use left justification only – as a rule, do not centre the content of your CV. The font and font size should be consistent. The bullet points should be basic – use circles or squares, but never any symbols that may not translate well when you email your CV to your potential employer. Headlines can be in all caps; the remaining text should not have special formatting. Do not underline any of the information in your CV. In the world of Internet driven job applications, underlining in a document implies a web link. The font size for headlines should not exceed 14 points; the remainder of the text in the CV should not exceed 12 points. Use the Tab key instead of the Space bar to create spaces between the texts in your CV. As a last formatting check point, ask your friends or your family for help in reviewing your CV. Send the CV file via email to a few of your friends – ask them to review the CV and make sure nothing seems out of place. Print out the CV on paper and review to make sure that margins are accurately set, and that the content doesn’t appear crowded on the page. Keep in mind – when it comes to your CV, sleek simple appearance, and great writing, will get you the job you are seeking.

You’ve heard it over and over again – a well-written CV is a winning CV. What does that mean? How can you determine whether your CV is written in a tone and style that employers will respond to? Synthesizing your educational achievements, years of your professional experience, and numerous qualifications you have acquired over the years into one to two pages is not easy to accomplish. Every phrase or statement you write has to convince your potential employer that you are the best candidate for the job. To do so, you will need to use action or power word. Action words, or power words, are keywords (verbs) that add strength and positive implication to your job responsibilities or qualifications. When you submit your CV to your potential employer, there are two scenarios that will occur. One, your application will be ran through a computer software program, which searches your CV for key terms as indicated by the employer. If your CV contains those key words, your CV will be pulled aside for further review.
Two, a hiring manager, or most often a human resources associate, will receive a stack or CVs and scan through them quickly to pick out those that stand out the most, again based on certain key words. It should now be clear why these action words are critical to your success in job hunting. When listing your employment history, each job’s responsibilities should be listed in bullet point form, with each statement starting with an action word. Using power verbs or phrases will indicate to your employer that you are driven by action and results and that you can effectively articulate your professional experience (thus, showcasing your communication skills). Here is a small sample of action words: Created Developed and Implemented Managed Delivered Designed Facilitated Negotiated Coordinated Budgeted Acted Communicated Consulted, etc. This is a very short sampling of action words. Many resources on the Internet contain extensive listings of action words or phrases. Do some research and use only those terms that are relevant to your field of experience.
Your best bet would be to locate samples of CVs by professionals in your industry. Review those CVs for ideas on how to list your responsibilities. Important note: do not copy exact statements from another person’s CV; while you can do your research, you will want to make your CV personalized to your professional experience. Don’t fall into the trap of using the same action word over and over. If you have in fact managed multiple projects, you may want to be a bit more specific about your role in each. For example, maybe you were the communication liaison in one project, while you were the project manager for another task. Begin the first bullet point with “communicated,” and the second bullet point with “managed.”
However, be aware of the words that you are using and consider their value in your CV. Do not go overboard with using varying terms, especially those that may change your role or your responsibilities. Additionally, you can find key action words in job descriptions. Review your CV against a job description and make sure that all required qualifications are addressed in your statements. This will also help you identify action words that the employer uses, which you can in turn use to customize your CV or cover letter to that specific job. Always make sure that you are consistent in the way you list all of your responsibilities and qualifications, and make sure that your statements exude positive attitude and focus on actions and results. By doing so, you are guaranteed to create a winning CV that will get you noticed.

If you have never written a CV, the blank page you are facing can be very intimidating. While you can describe your job responsibilities to your friends, listing them out in a CV and showcasing how your experience to date meets your career objectives is a very difficult task. To get started, you must first consider what type of a job you are seeking. Much like your career objective or summery should reflect your professional goals, your current and past experiences must showcase that you are the best candidate for the job you are applying for. In listing your current and past professional experiences, try to focus on those responsibilities that indicate you are qualified to take the next step in your career. Due to the fact that more and more companies as well as job search sites use scanning software to pick out candidates, it is very important that you use key words, including active verbs, to describe your skills. Instead of beginning your job descriptions with “Responsible for” try to use active verbs such as: Managed Developed Created Communicated Interfaced Achieved, etc. These key words get straight to the point of describing your responsibilities, which is exactly what the employers are looking for. Chose these words carefully – don’t say that you “managed a project”, implying you were responsible for the whole task from start to finish if you were only responsibly for communicating the project to other associates. Instead state that you “Developed and executed the communication strategy for associates,” describing your role more accurately and emphasizing your strengths.
Typically, the first job listed on your CV is the one you currently hold. In this case, make sure that your responsibilities are stated in present tense, as you are still responsible for them. For example, say “Manage accounting activities” instead of “Managed accounting activities.” This will indicate to your potential employer what your day-to-day activities are like and how they complement responsibilities of the job you are submitting your CV for. All previous jobs should be listed using past tense, and should start with active verbs such as managed, developed, accomplished, etc. Additionally, make sure that responsibilities you are listing are relevant for to your career objective. List only those responsibilities which help you put your best foot forward. For example, if you are looking for a job that requires managing a team of people, focus on your development and participation in group projects instead of focusing on solitary activities such as office organization. In terms of formatting, make sure that your responsibilities are listed in bullet points. This formatting is preferred to paragraphs on a CV because it is easier to review quickly. Employers simply scan the CVs and look for key words – if the CV looks overwhelming, with a lot of copy and poor formatting, they will likely discard it. Thus, it is very important that your CV is formatted with enough white space and doesn’t contain any errors.

For Entry Level Graduating from college is one of the proudest moments you can experience. Receiving your diploma validates all the hard work you put into your education, the all nights you pulled before exams. Your graduation signifies your accomplishments as a student, and opens the door into the world of career choices, job searches, and 40-hour workweeks.
All of a sudden, it hits you – how will you get a job that requires experience if you have none? As a recent college graduate, you are entering the workforce at entry-level jobs. Your potential employers have very reasonable expectations. They expect you to have graduated from college and that your major is in line with the job you are applying for. They anticipate that you have some experience, a summer job or an internship, but they are not requiring years of professional experience. They would like to see some references – from your professors or previous supervisors – so that they can get a better idea of your personality and work ethic. Sound reasonable so far? The best way to show your potential employer that you are a perfect candidate for the job is to create a functional CV. Functional CVs focus on your qualifications, not your career time line. This style of the CV highlights what skills you have, rather than where and when you acquired or utilize them. In other words, instead of listing your experiences by your job titles, your CV will contained sections titled by your skills such as verbal and written communication, customer satisfaction, project management, etc. This CV style is highly recommended for and most often used by college students seeking internships or their first jobs out of college. Begin your CV by stating your career objective. Make sure that your career goals are personal. Your objective should be specific to the position you want, and should indicate to your employer how you intend to utilize your education and how this position will help you develop your experience. Your education should be listed next. List the school you attend and its location, your graduation year, and your major. It can be helpful to include your GPA, specific courses you have taken, or any honours you have received while in school. Your professional skills should come next.
This section will include sub-headings as they relate to specific qualifications you want to promote, such as communications, customer relations, managements, etc. Here, you can utilize any experience you have that relates to the sub-sections, including your part time jobs, internships, volunteer positions, community service work, or school- related activities. Only include a work experience/work history section if you have held part time jobs while in school or have had internships you’d like your employer to know about. This list should only include dates, titles, companies, and locations without listing any of your responsibilities, since you are covering them in the previous section. If you belonged to any clubs in school, include a section for activities and list only those that support your career objective. For example, if you were an editor of your school paper, and you are trying to get a job at a publishing company, make sure that you include this experience in your CV.
Your last section should list references. As a new graduate, it is to your benefit to include references on your CV, and give your employer everything they need to consider you as a qualified candidate for the job. You have nothing to lose by providing this information ahead of being asked for it.

Before you start applying for jobs, take advantage of your school’s career centre and have one of the mentors there review your CV and help you perfect both the content and the format. With a well-written CV, you are prepared to take the professional world by storm.

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Education governance as catalyst to stable job

Skills Formation and Training Workshop (Y-SkillsLab Workshop) with Eddy Bruno (Trainer) Facebook:

The acquisition of specific skills is considered as a prerequisite of young person’s entrance into the employment. In this case, it directly plays a pertinent role in the transition path. In other words, there is a large amount of evidence` that suggest formal qualifications are prerequisites to get a stable job for young people . This shows that access into the labour market is guaranteed through specific skills acquisition and educational qualification. To put it differently, lack of these labour market entrance prerequisites tends to lead to social exclusion. However, young people, especially those with migration backgrounds are often at risk of marginalisation. For this purpose, they often leave school path uncompleted with low educational attainment that does not suit the labour market expectation.

To end that, countries such as Austria and Finland manage the deficits with the Youth Guarantee Policy measure, clustered under education and training, employment services, and active labour market measures. Despite that, unsuccessful transitional result involves the decision of the young person’s educational path. Therefore, education and training are vital parts of young people’s school in employment transition process. As a result, most young people face many difficulties after finishing compulsory school with the age of 15, when they are systematically selected for further education. Also, at 15 years, most youngsters are experiencing puberty, seeking for self-identity, and self-decision-making perspectives. In most cases, they are faced with educational expectations which are full of capitalistic and bureaucratic structures. These aspects coupled with other factors disturb their schooling process, rendering them vulnerable to drop out and thus, insufficient qualification. Hence, this shows that disadvantaged young people are often entangled to couple of risky dilemmas that steer their decision-making process during the transition path.

Despite that, there are several distinctive features that link youth labour market system with the educational governance to geared young people`s school to employment transition process. In this view, staying longer in education, vocational training or re-training reduces the risk of unemployment. Also, the investment and guarantee of youth education indicate equal possibilities to participate in the labour market. Thus, the issue of education is a vital aspect of young people’s school to employment process. In light of that, specific skills are acquired that fulfil the prerequisite to labour market entrance. Contrarily, disadvantaged young people are often dropouts with inadequate qualification and skills. Also, their link between schooling and the labour market activities shows a disappointing result with an increasingly high rate of unemployment. This misfortune is typically compensated through measurable benefits of individual training and educational upgrading via active labour market measures. The early labour market programmes provide youths with possibilities to receive a job offer, training, and reintegration assistance into the labour market. Besides, they will have the means to access suitable education and increase their chances to enter the labour market.

In fact, early school intervention leads to exclusive performances in general and vocational education reforms in pre/post-secondary level. In this case, the Authors Stern and Wagner (1999) and Stern (1999) stated that the explanation is as a result of apprenticeship, change of curricula, work experiences, and corporation between school and companies. All of these aspects are blueprints of the Youth Guarantee measure to secure equality of opportunity in the labour market system. However, young people with inadequate specific skills usually face long-term unemployment. Equally, the latter leads to socio-economic stagnation, ill health, and the rise of diverse social risk factor that negatively affect youth’s transition path.
As has been noted, in order to manage, coordinate, and regulate young people’s school to employment transition process, countries embark on active labour market measures. Hence, this is to guarantee education and training with assistance, job search, and coaching. These measures show the result of the educational governance and the employment regime through purposive support and guidance to coordinate and regulate the path.

Eddy Bruno (2016): Education governance as catalyst to stable job . In: School-to-work transition process among (disadvantaged) young People.

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“Fractured Transition” patterns of Young People`s without securing a stable job

Young People during an Active Labour Market Policy Measure Workshop (YSkillsLab) upgrading their skills [Trainer Eddy Bruno]

According to Milmeister and Berg (2012:19), the transit patterns and process are a stimulating and complex process of a youth’s lifestyle which has become less linear and fragmented. Thus, a successful transition process is a challenging path in contemporary society, particularly by disadvantaged youths at risk. In this case, they face difficulties that lead to societal exclusion. As a result of that, couple of uncertainties prevail through this path, especially in the decision-making process that hampers the transition routes. However, it is obvious that young people are often in a development process, where they have to meet up with uncountable societal expectations. Frequently, it leads to a nonconformist decision-making approach of disadvantaged youths. Thereupon, they are equipped with insufficient specific skills from education, employment or training that endangers the school to employment transition process. Similarly, Blossfeld et al (2005) suggest that entering the labour market has become a highly de-standardized status passage involving much uncertainty. In fact, this shows that contemporary young people labour market entrance composes of diverse barriers and expectations. Most of the societal expectations are high, especially with the demand of specific labour market skills, certificates, and qualifications. In other words, (disadvantaged) young people have inadequate and insufficient skills that fracture the school to employment transition process. Nevertheless, the experiences vary among the younger population, especially with the disadvantaged youths who are most affected and other prevalent difficulties such as the first entry into employment.

To point out, Dorsett and Lucchino (2014) examined the transition process in the United Kingdom with the aim of understanding the phenomenon in post school-leaving age. They used the tools of ‘optimal matching’ to identify the pattern (ibid). Hence, the result suggests that every 9 out of 10 post-16 youngsters have a rapidly positive experience and the remaining young people show a variety of histories which might call for a policy attention (ibid). Furthermore, a clear and accessible knowledge of post-16 year olds are important to reduce fractured transitional risk and uncertainties (Dorsett and Lucchino, 2014 cited from Coles, 1995; Furlong and Cartmel, 2004).

These key social risks and fractured transitions (Dorsett and Lucchino, 2012) are instances that young people pursue while meeting up with societal expectation. Hence, responding to all these systems disadvantaged young people, often incomplete the path with unpredictable endings. They are confronted with overwhelming challenges and expectations. For this reason, the fractured transition process leads to exclusion and other social risks. To put it in another way, it is always a challenge for the 15 – 24 year old young people to simultaneously combine schooling and employer expectation, peer group pressure, and institutional rules with regulations. The consequences are devastating and might likely lead to a high rate of disengagement, unemployment, stigmatization, early school leaver, and dropouts. However, the schooling, training or re-training process is part of the fractured transition which frequently results to fragmented output.

Consequently, disadvantaged young people usually end up as early school leavers and dropouts with insufficient qualifications, inadequate specific skills, and certificates for entrance into the labour market. Furthermore, the schooling and training process directly shows the dependency path of the transition process. They are frequent victims of the system, the coordinated process, and its institutional governance that knocks out youth with insufficient skills. Hence, they face difficulties entering into a labour market, which requires high and specific skills, competence, and competitiveness.

Eddy Bruno (2016):“Fractured Transition” patterns without securing a stable Job. In: School-to-work transition process among (disadvantaged) young People.

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Y-SkillLab Training to smooth School-to-Work Transition Process



The school-to-work transition process is a path full of uncertainties and difficulties. Most especially, young people and young adult between 15-19, 19-24, and 24-29 face lots of challenges with early career and first entry into the job market. In addition, the often have inefficient specific skills with precarious contracts and working poor (tendency of working, but not able with the current earnings to meet up with financial demands). Nevertheless, who are those suffering from this social risk? Of course the young people, especially those without the necessary social capital (networking, education attainment, relatives in top ranking position etc.).

In this case, social capital is an essential prerequisite that serves as an entrance card into the labour market system. However, in many countries, it`s limited because young people are often knocked out of the education system with insufficient skills and negatives remarks. This will equally reduce their social mobility and deprived them from basic needs.

In order to smooth young people school to work transition process, Y-skillLab project is designed to tailored solution-driven active labour market measure. It`s to assist and support young people with acquired specific employers’ skills (such as entrepreneurial skills, literally skills, language skills, media competence, etc.) which serves as a prerequisite to employment and entrepreneurship. Therefore, through this active labour market measure we have offered laptops to a community in Cameroon. It is to facilitate disadvantaged young people to have access to upgrade their skills and smooth the school to work transition process.


Eddy Bruno: HIBA Founder and Project Leader


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Top skills to get you a job and out of precarious Work

Photo Credit: Image
A Research by Eddy Bruno

In recent times, skills plays the role to shape inequalities, active participation, and inclusive redistribution. Moreover, employer`s expectation of specific skills can lead to labour market exclusion and perilous lifestyle as disadvantaged people (dropouts, Early school leavers, migrants, young people, etc) are possessing insufficient experience. This will definitely jeopardize their life-cycle and they shall face the challenge of precarious jobs (low-income jobs,unstable employment, lower wages, more dangerous working conditions. contract jobs etc.) and working poor.

According to recent research, precarious work defines the phenomena where Companies worldwide are shirking their legal obligations to workers by replacing permanent jobs with contract and temporary work. Therefore, precarious worker`s group is those who fill permanent job needs, but are denied permanent employee rights. Globally, these workers are subject to unstable employment, lower wages and more dangerous working conditions. They rarely receive social benefits and are often denied the right to join a union. Even when they have the right to unionize, workers are scared to organize if they know they are easily replaceable. In this case, women, minorities, and migrant workers are much more likely to fill these kinds of jobs. As a matter of fact, permanent employment across a some sectors has shifted to precarious jobs through outsourcing, use of employment agencies, and inappropriate classification of workers as “short-term” or “independent contractors (International Labour right forum 2017). Also, this had led to the flexibility of the labour market system with insider/outsider policy formation that often exclude disadvantage people from societal resource

Therefore, early labour market entrance and career have been increasingly difficult to the disadvantaged. Moreover, there are so many graduates now on the market as well as employer`s are looking for evidence of skills and work experience, which will make you stand out from the crowd. Start gathering them now or work on what you’ve got so you are ready to impress recruiters. Moreover, employers place much emphasis on finding candidates with the right skills and competencies for their organisations. Depending on the career sector and profession you choose to work in, there could be very specific skills, abilities and knowledge needed to do the job. However, complementing these are general competencies and behaviours that are essential for successful working. These are often overlooked by candidates, but they are the things recruitment professionals want to see evidence of. (Target Jobs 2017)

According to a report of the target job (2017),these are the following top ten skills graduate recruiters want:
1. Commercial awareness (or business acumen): This is about knowing how a firm works and what makes a company tick. Showing that you have an understanding of what the organisation wants to meet through its products and services, and how it competes in its marketplace
2. Communication: This covers verbal and written communication, and listening. It’s about being clear, concise and focused; being able to tailor your message for the audience and listening to the views of others.
3. Teamwork: You’ll need to prove that you’re a team player but also have the ability to manage and delegate to others and take on responsibility. It’s about building positive working relationships that help everyone to make goals and business aims.
4. Negotiation and Persuasion: This is about being able to put forward your way, but also being able to understand where the other person is coming from so that you can both get what you want or need and feel positive about it.
5. Problem solving: You need to display an ability to take a logical and analytical approach to solving problems and resolving issues. It’s also good to show that you can approach problems from different angles.
6. Leadership: You need to show potential to motivate teams and other colleagues that may work for them. It’s about assigning and delegating tasks well, setting deadlines and leading by good example.
7. Organisation: This is about showing that you can prioritize, work efficiently and productively, and manage your time well. It’s also good to be able to show employers how you decide what is important to focus on and get done, and how you go about meeting deadlines.
8. Perseverance: Employers want people to have a bit of get-up-and-go. Working life presents many challenges and you need to show employers that you’re the kind of person who will find a way through, even when the going gets tough… and stay cheerful-ish.
9. Ability to work under pressure: This is about keeping calm in a crisis and not becoming too overwhelmed or stressed.
10. Confidence: In the workplace you need to strike the balance of being confident in yourself, but not arrogant, but also have confidence in your colleagues and the plant you work for.

Therefore, with the above employer`s demanded skills, you can shape and smooth your school to work transition process and simplify your life, despite other factors that can still instigate social exclusion. Equally, the labour market and employment researcher, Eddy Esien, has designed a Y-SkillsLab ( active labour market policy measure/project, tailored to assist, support, and (re)trained people to upgrade and tap their potential skills.

To sum up, skills are prerequisite to enter the labour market and they also shape inequalities. Having a higher IQs isn`t a guarantee to smooth someone`s transition process, but in combination of a huge part of problem-solving skills, trust, team work, empathy, and the ability to have a healthy leadership, ethical value with a sense of humanity

Esien Eddy (2017): Y-SkillsLab.
International Labour Right Forum 2017. Precarious Work:
Target Job (2017): source

By Eddy Bruno:
Founder of HIBA, welfare, social and Public Policy Researcher, author of many “Active” labour Market Policy Research, and Political Economist. He equally has a long experience about the research and formation of skills with regard to inequalities. As a developmental expert, he has draft, execute, and implement varieties of social welfare projects for sustainability.

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