According to Milmeister and Berg (2012:19), the transit patterns and process are a stimulating and complex process of a youth’s lifestyle which has become less linear and fragmented. Thus, a successful transition process is a challenging path in contemporary society, particularly by disadvantaged youths at risk. In this case, they face difficulties that lead to societal exclusion. As a result of that, couple of uncertainties prevail through this path, especially in the decision-making process that hampers the transition routes. However, it is obvious that young people are often in a development process, where they have to meet up with uncountable societal expectations. Frequently, it leads to a nonconformist decision-making approach of disadvantaged youths. Thereupon, they are equipped with insufficient specific skills from education, employment or training that endangers the school to employment transition process. Similarly, Blossfeld et al (2005) suggest that entering the labour market has become a highly de-standardized status passage involving much uncertainty. In fact, this shows that contemporary young people labour market entrance composes of diverse barriers and expectations. Most of the societal expectations are high, especially with the demand of specific labour market skills, certificates, and qualifications. In other words, (disadvantaged) young people have inadequate and insufficient skills that fracture the school to employment transition process. Nevertheless, the experiences vary among the younger population, especially with the disadvantaged youths who are most affected and other prevalent difficulties such as the first entry into employment.
To point out, Dorsett and Lucchino (2014) examined the transition process in the United Kingdom with the aim of understanding the phenomenon in post school-leaving age. They used the tools of ‘optimal matching’ to identify the pattern (ibid). Hence, the result suggests that every 9 out of 10 post-16 youngsters have a rapidly positive experience and the remaining young people show a variety of histories which might call for a policy attention (ibid). Furthermore, a clear and accessible knowledge of post-16 year olds are important to reduce fractured transitional risk and uncertainties (Dorsett and Lucchino, 2014 cited from Coles, 1995; Furlong and Cartmel, 2004).
These key social risks and fractured transitions (Dorsett and Lucchino, 2012) are instances that young people pursue while meeting up with societal expectation. Hence, responding to all these systems disadvantaged young people, often incomplete the path with unpredictable endings. They are confronted with overwhelming challenges and expectations. For this reason, the fractured transition process leads to exclusion and other social risks. To put it in another way, it is always a challenge for the 15 – 24 year old young people to simultaneously combine schooling and employer expectation, peer group pressure, and institutional rules with regulations. The consequences are devastating and might likely lead to a high rate of disengagement, unemployment, stigmatization, early school leaver, and dropouts. However, the schooling, training or re-training process is part of the fractured transition which frequently results to fragmented output.
Consequently, disadvantaged young people usually end up as early school leavers and dropouts with insufficient qualifications, inadequate specific skills, and certificates for entrance into the labour market. Furthermore, the schooling and training process directly shows the dependency path of the transition process. They are frequent victims of the system, the coordinated process, and its institutional governance that knocks out youth with insufficient skills. Hence, they face difficulties entering into a labour market, which requires high and specific skills, competence, and competitiveness.
Eddy Bruno (2016):“Fractured Transition” patterns without securing a stable Job. In: School-to-work transition process among (disadvantaged) young People.