All posts by Eddy

“Fractured Transition” patterns of Young People`s without securing a stable job

Young People during an Active Labour Market Policy Measure Workshop (YSkillsLab) upgrading their skills [Trainer Eddy Bruno]

According to Milmeister and Berg (2012:19), the transit patterns and process are a stimulating and complex process of a youth’s lifestyle which has become less linear and fragmented. Thus, a successful transition process is a challenging path in contemporary society, particularly by disadvantaged youths at risk. In this case, they face difficulties that lead to societal exclusion. As a result of that, couple of uncertainties prevail through this path, especially in the decision-making process that hampers the transition routes. However, it is obvious that young people are often in a development process, where they have to meet up with uncountable societal expectations. Frequently, it leads to a nonconformist decision-making approach of disadvantaged youths. Thereupon, they are equipped with insufficient specific skills from education, employment or training that endangers the school to employment transition process. Similarly, Blossfeld et al (2005) suggest that entering the labour market has become a highly de-standardized status passage involving much uncertainty. In fact, this shows that contemporary young people labour market entrance composes of diverse barriers and expectations. Most of the societal expectations are high, especially with the demand of specific labour market skills, certificates, and qualifications. In other words, (disadvantaged) young people have inadequate and insufficient skills that fracture the school to employment transition process. Nevertheless, the experiences vary among the younger population, especially with the disadvantaged youths who are most affected and other prevalent difficulties such as the first entry into employment.

To point out, Dorsett and Lucchino (2014) examined the transition process in the United Kingdom with the aim of understanding the phenomenon in post school-leaving age. They used the tools of ‘optimal matching’ to identify the pattern (ibid). Hence, the result suggests that every 9 out of 10 post-16 youngsters have a rapidly positive experience and the remaining young people show a variety of histories which might call for a policy attention (ibid). Furthermore, a clear and accessible knowledge of post-16 year olds are important to reduce fractured transitional risk and uncertainties (Dorsett and Lucchino, 2014 cited from Coles, 1995; Furlong and Cartmel, 2004).

These key social risks and fractured transitions (Dorsett and Lucchino, 2012) are instances that young people pursue while meeting up with societal expectation. Hence, responding to all these systems disadvantaged young people, often incomplete the path with unpredictable endings. They are confronted with overwhelming challenges and expectations. For this reason, the fractured transition process leads to exclusion and other social risks. To put it in another way, it is always a challenge for the 15 – 24 year old young people to simultaneously combine schooling and employer expectation, peer group pressure, and institutional rules with regulations. The consequences are devastating and might likely lead to a high rate of disengagement, unemployment, stigmatization, early school leaver, and dropouts. However, the schooling, training or re-training process is part of the fractured transition which frequently results to fragmented output.

Consequently, disadvantaged young people usually end up as early school leavers and dropouts with insufficient qualifications, inadequate specific skills, and certificates for entrance into the labour market. Furthermore, the schooling and training process directly shows the dependency path of the transition process. They are frequent victims of the system, the coordinated process, and its institutional governance that knocks out youth with insufficient skills. Hence, they face difficulties entering into a labour market, which requires high and specific skills, competence, and competitiveness.

Eddy Bruno (2016):“Fractured Transition” patterns without securing a stable Job. In: School-to-work transition process among (disadvantaged) young People.

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Eddy Bruno – Labour Market Researcher & Political Economist

Globalization is “meeting of processes that have led to growing international networking” (Alasuutari 2000). In recent years, it has increased with the rapid advances in information technology, the collapse of the Eastern bloc, and the associated opening up of new markets, as well as the rise of Asian countries. Moreover, since the 1980s, the process also shows the interaction of the following four macrostructures: (A) the increasing internalisation of markets and the resulting growing competition between countries with very different wage and productivity levels and different social standards; (B) the intensification of competition between the social states and the resulting consequences; (C) the rapid worldwide networking of people, stakeholders, and States; and (D) the rapid rise in the significance of globally linked markets and the associated increasing interdependence and volatility of local markets. However, on the one hand, productivity gains and improvements in the general standard of living have led to a growing general uncertainty. Equally, the following changes are also to be noted: (I.) It is increasingly difficult for all actors to make rational decisions, in particular of long-term life`s commitments; (Ii) long-term decisions have become increasingly difficult, resulting in a socio-economic shift in favor of short-term planning; and (Iii) there has been a shift in the power constellations on the labor market, which has impacted asymmetrical relations (i.e. “temporary work or temporary contracts”) on the labor market (Blossfled et al. 2007) This has spilled out disappointments, loss of trust, reduction in family, and welfare function, which are attributable to four central changes in the personal life histories and resulting social patterns of inequality in different societies in the world.

Therefore, the four central transitions in life and work are:
A) Young people and Young adults – the losers of Globalization:
They are confronted with increasing rise of uncertainty in the labor market, which manifests itself in precarious and atypical forms of employment (e.g., part-time work, precarious forms of self-employment, temporary employment, and cohort comparison of lower incomes etc.). There is also a lack of professional experience and networks, which makes entry into the “internal” labor market particularly difficult. The effects vary according to welfare and employment regimes with the experience “more serious in the US than “flexible forms of employment in the European insider-outsider markets.” In addition, education has become more and more important, as low-skilled entry-level workers are particularly punished and disadvantaged within the system. In addition, because of life’s uncertainties, young adults are mainly without children, which is an economic and socially rational structural development.
B) Middle-income men – the winners of Globalization
On one hand, the employment conditions of well-qualified male workers are stable and are protected against flexibilisation by employers. On the other hand, low-skilled and less established workers such as education graduates or young adults are punished. There are also country-specific differences in labor market, welfare arrangements, and determinants such as individual resources – educational qualifications and professional human capital.
C) Women in the middle of their lives are marginalized.
However, despite labour market integration, women are primarily engaged in a precarious way and in all modern societies, unpaid family and care activities are still largely taken over by women. They are disproportionately flexible in working forms (such as, precarious part-time jobs, unsafe and low-paid employment, jobs with lower career prospects, high risk of a decline or unemployment) to meet the parallel family obligations. Likewise, development patterns vary in different regimes and the individual resources (educational capital) centrally determine the life and work process.
D) Employees in the early retirement age
However, due to the new flexibility requirements, older workers have several comparative competitive disadvantages compared to younger labor market competitors. They are also perceived as “less flexible, not adequately qualified and cost-intensive” by firms (ibid). Moreover, they are strategically motivated by attractive financial incentives to early exit – “early retirement strategy” [e.g. In the Central and South European countries] or through the following strategies. On the one hand by the market mechanism [e.g. In the liberal states] or through state mechanisms for the enhancement of adaptability – an active labor market policy, state support for lifelong learning and professional qualification [e.g. Social Democratic States of Scandinavia].

Despite that, the is a development of Social Patterns of Inequality in the Globalization Process
I. Regimes with inflexible employment systems: (e.g., German, Italy, Spain)
The speech here is from a regime that leads to an intensification of inequality between insiders / outsiders and which has led society into a highly secure and well-earning group on the one hand and a marginalized group of people on the other. This affects mainly job-seekers, women, as well as the unemployed and unqualified whose problems have intensified on the labor market. In southern European regimes, the inequality is most pronounced as labor market structures are even more rigid and the welfare state is much more fragmented than in the conservative countries of central Europe. Hence, inflexible regimes have fostered the inequality between the generations by “older people (or former insiders), whose employment flexibility through high pensions is comparatively socially secured, and (…) young people who make their flexibilisation in the labor markets with comparatively little social security and relatively low risk compensation, as well as the financing and high social security of the “disrupted generations” (ibid).
II. Employment-demanding regimes
There is a great difference between the market-oriented liberal and the social-democratic countries. Liberal labor market and welfare state systems are relatively easy to meet through dismissals and wage adjustments (such as, in the US and the UK), which point to a high level of mobility as well as significant wage differences between groups with different qualifications. These inequalities are little cushioned by welfare state policies and benefits that have shifted the labor risk to individual resources with increasing labor market flexibility. In contrast, the social democratic countries (such as the Denmark) make it possible to increase employment flexibility with comparatively strong state support measures that help the reintegration of the unemployed. At the same time, the entrepreneurs have little scope for wage flexibility , which can be observed with a higher workload mobility and thus caused social inequalities between younger and older generations as well as within one generation.
III. Post-socialist regimes
The risk of unemployment as well as wage inequality has risen strongly in these countries after the fall of the socialist system, but the country-specific flexibility strategies are very different. In the same way, the social inequalities between workers have therefore strongly increased with insiders and outsiders problems

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Y-SkillLab Training to smooth School-to-Work Transition Process



The school-to-work transition process is a path full of uncertainties and difficulties. Most especially, young people and young adult between 15-19, 19-24, and 24-29 face lots of challenges with early career and first entry into the job market. In addition, the often have inefficient specific skills with precarious contracts and working poor (tendency of working, but not able with the current earnings to meet up with financial demands). Nevertheless, who are those suffering from this social risk? Of course the young people, especially those without the necessary social capital (networking, education attainment, relatives in top ranking position etc.).

In this case, social capital is an essential prerequisite that serves as an entrance card into the labour market system. However, in many countries, it`s limited because young people are often knocked out of the education system with insufficient skills and negatives remarks. This will equally reduce their social mobility and deprived them from basic needs.

In order to smooth young people school to work transition process, Y-skillLab project is designed to tailored solution-driven active labour market measure. It`s to assist and support young people with acquired specific employers’ skills (such as entrepreneurial skills, literally skills, language skills, media competence, etc.) which serves as a prerequisite to employment and entrepreneurship. Therefore, through this active labour market measure we have offered laptops to a community in Cameroon. It is to facilitate disadvantaged young people to have access to upgrade their skills and smooth the school to work transition process.


Eddy Bruno: HIBA Founder and Project Leader


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Top skills to get you a job and out of precarious Work

Photo Credit: Image
A Research by Eddy Bruno

In recent times, skills plays the role to shape inequalities, active participation, and inclusive redistribution. Moreover, employer`s expectation of specific skills can lead to labour market exclusion and perilous lifestyle as disadvantaged people (dropouts, Early school leavers, migrants, young people, etc) are possessing insufficient experience. This will definitely jeopardize their life-cycle and they shall face the challenge of precarious jobs (low-income jobs,unstable employment, lower wages, more dangerous working conditions. contract jobs etc.) and working poor.

According to recent research, precarious work defines the phenomena where Companies worldwide are shirking their legal obligations to workers by replacing permanent jobs with contract and temporary work. Therefore, precarious worker`s group is those who fill permanent job needs, but are denied permanent employee rights. Globally, these workers are subject to unstable employment, lower wages and more dangerous working conditions. They rarely receive social benefits and are often denied the right to join a union. Even when they have the right to unionize, workers are scared to organize if they know they are easily replaceable. In this case, women, minorities, and migrant workers are much more likely to fill these kinds of jobs. As a matter of fact, permanent employment across a some sectors has shifted to precarious jobs through outsourcing, use of employment agencies, and inappropriate classification of workers as “short-term” or “independent contractors (International Labour right forum 2017). Also, this had led to the flexibility of the labour market system with insider/outsider policy formation that often exclude disadvantage people from societal resource

Therefore, early labour market entrance and career have been increasingly difficult to the disadvantaged. Moreover, there are so many graduates now on the market as well as employer`s are looking for evidence of skills and work experience, which will make you stand out from the crowd. Start gathering them now or work on what you’ve got so you are ready to impress recruiters. Moreover, employers place much emphasis on finding candidates with the right skills and competencies for their organisations. Depending on the career sector and profession you choose to work in, there could be very specific skills, abilities and knowledge needed to do the job. However, complementing these are general competencies and behaviours that are essential for successful working. These are often overlooked by candidates, but they are the things recruitment professionals want to see evidence of. (Target Jobs 2017)

According to a report of the target job (2017),these are the following top ten skills graduate recruiters want:
1. Commercial awareness (or business acumen): This is about knowing how a firm works and what makes a company tick. Showing that you have an understanding of what the organisation wants to meet through its products and services, and how it competes in its marketplace
2. Communication: This covers verbal and written communication, and listening. It’s about being clear, concise and focused; being able to tailor your message for the audience and listening to the views of others.
3. Teamwork: You’ll need to prove that you’re a team player but also have the ability to manage and delegate to others and take on responsibility. It’s about building positive working relationships that help everyone to make goals and business aims.
4. Negotiation and Persuasion: This is about being able to put forward your way, but also being able to understand where the other person is coming from so that you can both get what you want or need and feel positive about it.
5. Problem solving: You need to display an ability to take a logical and analytical approach to solving problems and resolving issues. It’s also good to show that you can approach problems from different angles.
6. Leadership: You need to show potential to motivate teams and other colleagues that may work for them. It’s about assigning and delegating tasks well, setting deadlines and leading by good example.
7. Organisation: This is about showing that you can prioritize, work efficiently and productively, and manage your time well. It’s also good to be able to show employers how you decide what is important to focus on and get done, and how you go about meeting deadlines.
8. Perseverance: Employers want people to have a bit of get-up-and-go. Working life presents many challenges and you need to show employers that you’re the kind of person who will find a way through, even when the going gets tough… and stay cheerful-ish.
9. Ability to work under pressure: This is about keeping calm in a crisis and not becoming too overwhelmed or stressed.
10. Confidence: In the workplace you need to strike the balance of being confident in yourself, but not arrogant, but also have confidence in your colleagues and the plant you work for.

Therefore, with the above employer`s demanded skills, you can shape and smooth your school to work transition process and simplify your life, despite other factors that can still instigate social exclusion. Equally, the labour market and employment researcher, Eddy Esien, has designed a Y-SkillsLab ( active labour market policy measure/project, tailored to assist, support, and (re)trained people to upgrade and tap their potential skills.

To sum up, skills are prerequisite to enter the labour market and they also shape inequalities. Having a higher IQs isn`t a guarantee to smooth someone`s transition process, but in combination of a huge part of problem-solving skills, trust, team work, empathy, and the ability to have a healthy leadership, ethical value with a sense of humanity

Esien Eddy (2017): Y-SkillsLab.
International Labour Right Forum 2017. Precarious Work:
Target Job (2017): source

By Eddy Bruno:
Founder of HIBA, welfare, social and Public Policy Researcher, author of many “Active” labour Market Policy Research, and Political Economist. He equally has a long experience about the research and formation of skills with regard to inequalities. As a developmental expert, he has draft, execute, and implement varieties of social welfare projects for sustainability.

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G/A- Philanthropy and Policy Research Conference 2017


Global/African yearly’s PHILANTHROPY and POLICY RESEARCH CONFERENCE 2017 with its value added workshops / trainings for sustainable development process. There are also (social) policy paper`s presentations, Research Magazine Publication, Synergy, Exhibitions, and an unconditional redistributive Networking possibilities.

3rd Edition in #EUROPE
4th Edition in #SUB-#SAHARAN #AFRICA

Stay tune…get connected, and be informed


Conference’s focus groups are:


“We build our collective future together ”

Bruno Eddy
Organizer / Project Leadership

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Labour Market Flexibility strategies and their impact on special inequality dynamics

From Eddy Bruno

The increasing labour market flexibility due to the globalisation, competitiveness, and permanent risk has devastating consequences to early entrants and youngster career cause by the decline of long-term commitment in modern societies due to volatility of labour, capital, commodity, a financial markets and company that react by transferring risks to their employees (“recommodification of risks”) or withdraw from employment contract (“contingent asymmetric commitment”) (pp.3-7). However, some groups are more endangered into the precarious job than others as “(…) recommodification strikes especially socially deprived groups” (pp. 7). Flexibility is distinguished as numerical flexibility, externalization, wage flexibility, temporal flexibility and functional flexibility that can lead to precarious jobs, risk of unemployment (pp.4-5), and uncertainties such as economic uncertainty, temporal uncertainty, or social uncertainty (Blossfeld et al 2005, pp.4-6). Hence, labour market flexibility is observed from two groups: “(…) on the one hand, labour market insiders whose jobs are relatively well protected; on the other hand, there are outsiders (…) who are deprived of experience and who do not have strong ties to work organizations and work environments” (pp. 25). Also, the latter is temporarily employed that expose young person’s early career to numerical flexibility (pp. 5-6). Consequently, this will affect their marriage timing and family formation, impact on socially inequality structures and permanently disadvantage throughout the life process (pp.6-7).
Moreover, the institutional settings of different countries’ perspective and social structure mediate the “(…) effect on how labor market entrants are affected by increasing labor market flexibility” depending on the education system, the production regime, and the welfare model (pp.9-10).
Firstly, the education system of Modern societies is differently structured. To begin with, the general education system is classified under standardization and stratification. The former denotes “the degree to which the quality of education meets the same standard nationwide” (…) and the letter “(…) refers to the number and type of transition to the next education level” (pp. 10-11; Allmendinger 1989: 46). Hence, in standardized regimes certificates provide employers with employee’s information that smooth school to work transition process, whereas stratified systems enable companies with a pre-selection of people school performance (Allmendinger 1989; pp.10). Hence, both governance affects the matching process, determined the transition path, and adjusts the economic shock (pp.10-11). Furthermore, countries organised vocational training differently as (1) “theoretical” vocational training mainly in schools (e.g. in Holland, Sweden, Hungary, Estonia), (2) a dual system with both school training and job experience at the workplace (e.g., in Germany, Denmark), and (3) unstandardized on-the-job training (e.g., in the United States, Great Britain, Italy. Spain)” (pp. 11). All the system re-confirm inequalities in one way or the other to early entrant and young person’s labour market career. Also, the prolongation in higher education shows the tendency among young people to escape unemployment and labour market entrance as an option to stay in the schooling process that is particularly practiced in post-socialist welfare states (pp. 12).
Secondly, the production regimes determine the industrial relations through the “(…) types of work councils, collective bargaining systems, the power of unions versus employer organizations, labour legislation or administrative regulations” (pp. 13) that are regulated and coordinate by the varieties of capitalism types in the political economy known as “coordinated” (close employment relation) and “uncoordinated” (open employment relations) market economies (pp. 13). In this case, the employment relations and degree of openness have consequences for early labour market entrants and young people career. (pp. 13).
Thirdly, the European countries Welfare regimes is not singular but plural base on national ideologies towards social solidarity and equality perspectives as well as gender approach (pp. 16) that commit to policies such active labour market policies to assist in job placement, welfare-sustaining employment exit policies, extend the share of public sector, and offer generous family and service allowances to support the society. As a matter of fact, following five welfare regimes (i.e. the liberal, the social democratic, the conservative, the family-oriented, and the post-socialist) react differently even though the rising labour market flexibility intensifies existing social inequalities (pp. 17-18). They pursue different institutional governance that either regulates or deregulate various production systems with a flexible labour market or about to carry out flexibilisation that steer young peoples` school to work transition process which is associated with uncertainties and precarious employment forms (pp. 21-28).
However, globalisation has caused a rise in employment flexibility in most European countries that has evolved a particular influence in both labour market entries and the early careers of young people (pp. 21).
Allmendinger, J. (1989): “Education systems and labour market outcomes.” European Sociological Review 5: 231-250
Blossfeld et al. (2005): Flexibility processes and social inequalities at labor market entry and in the early career: a conceptual paper for the flexCAREER project. (Working paper 1) Bamberg.
Blossfeld et al. (2005): Globalization, Uncertainty, and Youth in Society. London/New York: Rouledge.

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G/A Philanthropy Research Conference – 22.10. 2016, Linz/Austria

The next Global/Africa Philanthropy Research Conference is taking place on the 22nd of October 2016 at IBIS HOTEL in Linz/Austria.

1 We give priority to Women and Childcare

The Topic is “Paving the gateway into Philanthropy Leadership and entrepreneurship for sustainable (African) society”.

In addition, the emphasis is focused on Networking, Corporate Social Responsibility, and coordination of human capital, expertise and exchange of best practices. This is to guide the participants to reflect on a Sustainable Action Plan, support, and assistance various social welfare production and security measures in (sub-Saharan) African Society. Despite that, we shall address these issues: Health and Child Care, Young people` school to employment transition, Education policy, African` Migrants with Refugees, and the creation of “Green”Jobs in African Community

Also, there are a series of value-added workshops and training, scientific study papers. and social welfare projects that shall be presented during the conference. As a matter of that, the papers consist of following themes: Gender & Sustainability, Women and Children, Healthcare, Hygiene & Sustainability, Youth & Leadership , Environment & Sustainability, Diaspora, Remittances & Sustainable Economy, Labour market transition, entrepreneurship & Sustainability , Global/African Migration trend, Integration & Diaspora, Education & Sustainability, Finance & sustainability, Human Rights and African Refugees , Peacekeeping, Conflicts and sustainability, Political Institutions, Good governance & Sustainability etc.

Moreover, we shall launch the first edition of the newly conceptualised global/African Philanthropy Research Magazine. It will fully cover all the research papers and projects presented during the conference

Participants flying from Africa and Asia, please contact the under Email for your information, eligibility, and entitlement.

Eddy Bruno
Project Leader

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The power of Training !


Training is an active labour market policy measures that guarantee, activate, and give participants with active methods and tools to handle contemporary aspects, especially in education systems. It can also increase the conduct and performance of trainees that will serve as multiplication. As active labour market policy, participants will come out motivated with new skills and competencies how to carry out their duties.

According to a report from Kenya , more than 200 nursery school teachers just received training about “(…) early childhood development education through an initiative by the Complementary Schools Association of Kenya in partnership with Nairobi county government and Care for All Kids International organization from China” (CCTV, 2016). However, Mr. Charles Ouma, National Chairman of the Association claimed “(…) that some of the “Some of our teachers have served up to 15 years with no training and the government urges all informal school teachers to be certified within three years, but no one can afford college training”.
It is really hard to digest this information that teachers have served 15 years as trainers in schools without necessary training about new educational skills or personal development. These are things that have to be drastically changed in many societies to meet up with contemporary demand.

Cctv-africa (2016). 200ntechers from informal settlements trained in Kenya. Retrieved from: Access on 27.08.2016

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Global/African Philanthropy Research Magazine – 01/2016

The cover of the first Edition of Global/African Philanthropy Research Magazine is already design. The publication is unfolding and will be lauched during the upcoming global/African Philanthropy Research Conference in Linz/Austria. Afterward other countries and towns shall subsequently follow. For the next edition, the call of papers/projects is ongoing.

Submission and information contact

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Corporation with the Institute of Politics and Social Policy of the Johannes Kepler University Linz/Austria

“The Institute of Politics and Social Policy of the Johannes Kepler University is pleased to cooperate with you and the Hilfsverein Baileke (HIBA-Foundation) for the mutual benefit of the two institutions and especially for the benefit of African students traveling to attend workshops and conferences organized by HIBA in Linz, Austria.
The Institute would gladly welcome students from Africa during the week of the Global African Philanthropy Research Conference in October 2016 and greet the scholars from Africa during the conference itself. African students are also welcome during that week to visit the department on Campus, for a workshop and intercultural exchange with Austrian students. There is also the possibility for African students to attend lectures and audit seminars in the Politics and Social Policy Programs that our department is offering.
The department looking forward to this opportunity of international and intercultural exchange among students from Austria and from the Global South, and its members will be pleased about the chance to participate in the Global African Philanthropy Research Conference”

Univ. Margitta Mätzke, Ph.D.
(Head of the Institute of Politics and Social Policy at JKU)

Links to online Letter:

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